Ephesus was in ancient times by the sea. By sedimentation, and climatic and seismic changes, the coastline shifted over time to the west, so the city is now several miles inland.
The earliest evidence for human presence in the city of Ephesus later go back to 5000 BC. Already in the 2nd Millennium BC, the Hittite texts of known and probably located with the later settlement Apasa Ephesus to be identified, in the land Araya, an important center in the area of influence of the Hittite and Mycenaean cultures. From the 2 Half of the 2nd Millennium BC, there are Minoan and Mycenaean remains. About the 10th century BC began the settlement by Ionian Greeks. The legend has Androklos, King of Attica, founded the city.
Lydian and Carian locals living northeast of the current city limits, the immigrant Greeks to the tradition established by its own settlement called Koressos. After being conquered by the Lydian king Croesus in 560 BC, there was a Synoikismos, that is, several small villages were merged and a new settlement in an area near the Temple of Artemis (Artemision), widely considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World was built.
Only 296 BC Ephesus was by the Diadochi Lysimachus King of Thrace to the present location and relocated temporarily renamed after his wife in Arsinoeia. Since that time Ephesus was a major port city of almost 350 hectares, owned by 189 to 133 BC the Kingdom of Pergamon after 133 BC the Roman Empire.
Ephesus was one of the most important and perhaps with more than 200,000 inhabitants, one of the largest cities of the Roman empire and seat of the governor (proconsul) of the province of Asia. Many public buildings were created by both the city and funded by wealthy citizens. This included the Temple of Vespasian and Hadrian, were honored as part of the imperial cult. The city retained its outstanding position to Late Antiquity on, both as a place of pilgrimage and bishop, on the other hand, as the capital of the (secular) diocese of Asiana.
Also in connection with the development of Christianity is Ephesus important: According to tradition, the apostle Paul stayed during his 3rd Mission trip (to 50) in Ephesus. He aroused the indignation of the other things there, devotional, who feared for their good business with the “Diana of the Ephesians.” Paul was legal but tolerated in the city. Also in the New Testament Epistle to the Ephesians is mentioned, he should have addressed later on the community of the city.
have established an extra-biblical legends to be Maria to after the Ascension of Jesus with the circle of women around Jesus and the Apostle John in a house near Ephesus (Virgin Mary) and up to their own ascension, many people in medicine and teaching of Christianity taught.
Met in Ephesus in 431 by Emperor Theodosius II convened third Ecumenical Council, also called the Council of Ephesus, in 449 then the so-called Robber Synod, whose decisions have been discarded already 451st The so-called St. Mary’s Church, the only remains are preserved, has been named several times as a place of the council, which is controversial in the research, however.
Well into the sixth Century, flourished in the late ancient Ephesus life. In Byzantine times the city but then lost gradually its former importance – especially by the increasing siltation of the harbor. 867 took an army of Paulicians under John Chrysocheires the city. In 1090 – shortly before the First Crusade – Ephesus was conquered by the Seljuk Turks, near the town was in Turkish time Ayasoluk, later renamed Selçuk.
In the 19th Century began the archaeological exploration of Ephesus to search for the remains of the Artemis Temple. Incorporated the initial parts of the city proper were known. The first excavations took the British railway engineer John Turtle Wood (1863-1874) and the archaeologist David George Hogarth (1904-05) on behalf of the British Museum. Since 1895 takes the Austrian Archaeological Institute before planned excavation. They have discovered large areas of the city, next to public buildings and some large houses (“Hang houses”), belonging with wall paintings and mosaics of the best preserved residential buildings in the eastern Mediterranean.
|The Mazäus Mithtridates Tor @ copyright by chim
Today, Ephesus is one of the main tourist attractions of Turkey with hundreds of thousands of visitors every year by Ephesus Tours. This fact, they tried in the sense of restoration to modern aspects, but also to tread in the presentation of the ancient ruins new ways. This is particularly true for the reconstruction of the so-called Celsus Library in the early 2nd Century AD on. It is not just a library building, but also the grave of the founder Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus.
The public buildings were uncovered in the city, including the so-called “market state”, among other things Bouleuterion, the meeting room of the City Council, and the Prytaneion, the offices of the leading representatives of the city. In addition to private residential buildings (of which represent the slope houses an example of luxurious living culture), the ancient streets, such as the Kuretenstraße lined with other public buildings. These include monumental fountains (Nymphaeum Traiani) as well as temples, such as the small Temple of Hadrian.
Testimony to the bathing habits of the Ephesians is the large bath-gymnasium complexes, including the body care, the theater, the East and the port and the high school Variusbad. In addition to the personal care and exercise they were also an important social and social center of public life dar.
In the great theater of Ephesus is the Apostle Paul experienced the described in the Acts scene with the devotional of the Artemis Temple. From the temples of the imperial cult, especially those for Domitian and Hadrian, today only small remnants.
Important discoveries from the early days of the excavations, which were brought with the permission of the Ottoman ruler out of the country, are now in the Ephesus Museum, the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, the Neue Burg, a part of Vienna’s Hofburg. Today, the findings from the recent excavations at the Archaeological Museum are kept in a nearby Selçuk, earlier findings are to some extent in the Archaeological Museums of Istanbul and Izmir and in the British Museum.
|In the covered Terrace House 2 copyright by Hartmut
The so-called Hillside homes Two complexes of ancient Ephesus in private homes.
Both complexes are located on the southern slope of Bülbüldağ, the larger of the two mountain town of Ephesus. The better preserved “Terrace House 2” has an area of 4000 m² and bordered to the north by the so-called Kuretenstraße. The Roman residential development in the currently visible form began in the Roman Empire, their use ended in the structure visible today with the destruction of Terrace House 2 by an earthquake in the 3rd Quarter of the 3rd Century AD The Terrace House 2 is particularly remarkable for its well-preserved wall paintings, the 3rd in large part to the Century AD, are dated. It is the most comprehensive and best-preserved find of wall paintings of this time from the east of the Roman Empire.
“Terrace House 1” next to the covered complex of the “Terrace House 2”, also on the Kuretenstraße. The indoor complex to the “Terrace House 2” is accessible via a separate entrance in Ephesus.
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